Definition of Human Trafficking
Human trafficking is modern-day
slavery, in which victims are subjected to force, fraud or coercion for the
purpose of forced labor or sexual exploitation. It is the fastest growing
criminal industry worldwide.
Types of Human Trafficking
- Forced labor or involuntary servitude is the leading form of trafficking in
- Bonded labor or debt bondage utilizes a bond or debt to keep a person under
subjugation—migrant laborers are especially vulnerable to bonded labor or debt
- Involuntary domestic servitude —the informal workplace is conducive to
- Forced child labor includes any child subject to involuntary servitude, debt
bondage, or slavery
- Sex trafficking comprises a significant portion of trafficking and can occur
alongside debt bondage
- Child sex trafficking includes commercial sexual exploitation of children and
child sex tourism
Indicators of a Potential Trafficking Victim
- Evidence of being controlled or the inability to move or leave a job
- bruises or other signs of physical abuse
- fear or depression
- not speaking on own behalf and/or non-English speaking
- no passport or other forms of identification or documentation.
Number of Victims and Challenges in Identifying Victims
- Approximately 600,000 to 800,000 victims are trafficked annually across borders
- 14,500 to 17,500 into the U.S.
- It is difficult to estimate the number of victims because trafficking is
under-reported: victims often fear deportation or retribution and suffer from
self-blame and lack of trust.
- Data collection is inadequate in many places.
California- Why a Trafficking Destination?
California is a top destination
for traffickers due to the state’s international border, major harbors and
airports, powerful economy and increasing immigrant population (California
Alliance to Combat Trafficking Slavery Task Force 2007).
Sacramento – Why a Trafficking Hub?
Sacramento is a potential hub for
trafficking because it is a major crossroads and gateway to the Central Valley:
traffickers transport victims along Interstate 5 and Interstate 80 to Reno. The Sacramento
Rescue and Restore Coalition’s 2008 survey of law enforcement, health providers and social service
agencies found that:
- 100+ victims were served in the 12 months preceding the survey
- Half the cases involved sex exploitation and half labor
- Only 5% of respondents had training on trafficking
- Many respondents had contact with victims, but did not realize it until the survey
- The Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) of 2000, 2003 and 2005
prosecutes traffickers, protects victims and prevents trafficking, making it a
federal crime and victims eligible for federally-funded benefits. The 2008
TVPRA provides assistance for child victims and enhances the ability to
criminally punish traffickers.
- California enacted AB 22 (2005) making human trafficking a felony and
assisting victims with benefits. SB 1569 (2007) created a state-funded program
for non-certified victims, extending eligibility for benefits and services.
- For an expanded list of California and Federal Human Trafficking Legislation,
please go to the Office of the
Attorney General, State of California Department of Justice.
Report Human Trafficking
If you think you have come into contact with a victim of human trafficking, please call:
- WEAVE: (916) 920-2952
- National Human Trafficking Resource Center Hotline: 1-888-3737-888
Report a Tip Online